William Katzman (2014) wrote: 'I’ve seen multiple people in the past comment either on the lack of effectiveness of demonstrations in teaching physics and/or on how demonstrations when couched with questions, predictions and discussions can increase conceptual understanding & retention. I’m curious if anyone can point to some research articles I might be able to examine to explore this idea."
One relevant research article is "Classroom Demonstrations: Learning Tools or Entertainment" [Crouch, Fagen, Callen, & Mazur 2004). That article prompted my response "Physics Demonstrations: *Both* Education and Entertainment" [Hake (2011)], the abstract of which reads:
ABSTRACT: PhysLrnR's Noah Podolefsky (2011) wrote (paraphrasing): "Perhaps the reason we don't have evidence that demos promote interest is that nobody has bothered to look for it because the research agenda has been mostly focused on quantifiable measures of content learning."
But Coleman, Holcomb, & Rigden (1998) *did* look for it and reported that a survey at Virginia Tech confirmed students' approval of demonstrations "clearly and unambiguously," and that many "students commented in detail on the educational value of the demonstrations."
What seems to have eluded the physics education community is that both students' enjoyment and learning can be drastically increased by transforming lecture demonstrations into Socratic Dialogue Inducing (SDI) Labs in which the student themselves do the demos and discuss the physics behind the demo among themselves, with Socratic guidance as needed.
Since demonstrations have played such an important role in introductory science teaching and since their educational value is so controversial it may be worthwhile to utilize this opportunity to compile the short list of relevant REFERENCES below.
REFERENCES [URLs shortened by <http://bit.ly/> and accessed on 16 Nov 2014. References preceded by ** were suggested as relevant to learning effects of demonstrations by Paul Camp (2014) and Judy Vondruska (2014)]. To access posts on PhysLrnR one needs to subscribe :-(, but that takes only a few minutes by clicking on <http://bit.ly/nG318r> and then clicking on "Join or Leave PHYSLRNR-LIST." If you're busy, then subscribe using the "NOMAIL" option under "Miscellaneous." Then, as a subscriber, you may access the archives and/or post messages at any time, while receiving NO MAIL from the list!
**Baddock, M. & R. Bucat. 2008. "Effectiveness of a classroom chemistry demonstration using the cognitive conflict strategy." International Journal of Science Education 30(8): 1115-1128; online as a 90 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/1uby4YQ>.
Camp, P.J. 2014. "Re: articles on learning effects of demonstrations" online on the CLOSED! PhysLrnR archives at <http://bit.ly/1tSc1Ts>. Post of 13 Nov 2014 00:11:28-0500 to PhysLrnR.
Coleman, L.A., D.F. Holcomb, & J.S. Rigden. 1998. "The Introductory University Physics Project 1987-1995: What has it accomplished?" Am. J. Phys. 66(2): 124-137, online to subscribers at <http:// bit.ly/1xLgkpw>.
**Crouch, C.H., A.P. Fagen, J.P. Callen, & E. Mazur. 2004. "Classroom Demonstrations: Learning Tools or Entertainment," Am. J. Phys. 72(6): 835-838, online at <http://bit.ly/n6j1l5>.
Di Stefano, R. 1996. "Preliminary IUPP results: Student reactions to in-class demonstrations and to the presentation of coherent themes," Am. J. Phys. 64(1): 58-68; online to subscribers at <http://bit.ly/1sOZhxn>. In his abstract Di Stefano wrote: "The relative importance of demonstrations, a feature relevant to most implementations of introductory science courses emerged from comments contributed by students in both comparison and model courses."
Hake, R.R. 1992. "Socratic pedagogy in the introductory physics lab," Phys. Teach. 30: 546-552; updated version (4/27/98) online as an 88 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/9tSTdB>
Hake,R.R. 1998b. "A Microcomputer Based SDI Lab Emphasizing the Graphical Interpretation of the Derivative and Integral" AAPT Announcer 28(2):101, see SDI Lab #0.2, "Introduction to Kinematics" available at "Socratic Dialogue Inducing (SDI) Labs" [Hake (2014)].
Hake, R.R. 1998a. "Introduction to SDI Lab Teacher's Guides," online as a 29 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/oWMk04>.
Hake, R.R. 2001. "Can Demonstrations Promote Learning?" PhysLrnR post of 20 Dec 2001 11:07:10-0800; online on the CLOSED! PhysLrnR archives at <http://bit.ly/nDZpPt>.
Hake, R.R. 2002. "Socratic Dialogue Inducing Laboratory Workshop," Proceedings of the UNESCO-ASPEN Workshop on Active Learning in Physics, Univ. of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, 2-4 Dec. 2002; online as a 44 kB pdf <http://bit.ly/qMo1ES>. [ASPEN = ASian Physics Education Network <http://www.bit.ly/eIPw7m>.
Hake, R.R. 2007. "The Socratic Method of the Historical Socrates, Plato's Socrates, and the Law School Socrates," online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at <http://bit.ly/i4GWHz>. Post of 21 June to AERA-L. The abstract and link to the complete post were transmitted to various discussion lists and are also on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/hb8kKD> with provision for comments.
Hake, R.R. 2008. "Design-Based Research in Physics Education Research: A Review," in Kelly, Lesh, & Baek (2008)]. A pre-publication version of that chapter is online as a 1.1 MB pdf at <http://bit.ly/9kORMZ>.
Hake, R.R. 2011. "Physics Demonstrations: *Both* Education and Entertainment," online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at <http://bit.ly/rtrMbp>. Post of 31 Jul 2011 14:16:04-0700 to AERA-L and Net-Gold. The abstract and link to the complete post were transmitted to various discussion lists and are on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/1xYnQvs>.
Hake, R.R. 2012a. "Re: Physics Laboratory Teaching," online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at <http://bit.ly/KMNeOB>. Post of 5 Jun 2012 15:18:18-0700 to AERA-L and Net-Gold. The abstract and link to the complete post are also being transmitted to several discussion lists and are also on my blog "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/JULOCy> .
Hake, R.R. 2012b. "Helping Students to Think Like Scientists in Socratic Dialogue Inducing Labs," Phys. Teach. 50(1): 48-52; online to subscribers at <http://bit.ly/wLy3En>. A version identical to the Phys. Teach article except for (a) minor formatting changes, and (b) the addition of a few *hot-linked* URL's is online at <http://bit.ly/x5ruYF>.
Hake, R.R. 2014. "Socratic Dialogue Inducing (SDI) Labs" online at <http://bit.ly/9nGd3M>: *free* downloads of 9 SDI Labs.
Katzman, W. 2014. "articles on learning effects of demonstrations" online on the CLOSED! PhysLrnR archives at <http://bit.ly/1zpAXH2>. Post of 12 Nov 2014 22:38:56-0600 to PhysLrnR.
Kelly, A.E., R.A. Lesh, & J.Y. Baek. 2008. "Handbook of Design Research Methods in Education: Innovations in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Learning and Teaching,"Routledge. Publisher's information at <http://bit.ly/dkLabI>. Amaradzon.com information at <http://amzn.to/gtRpbU>. An expurgated Google book preview is online at http://bit.ly/1utV1Iv>.
**Miller, K. 2013. "Use demonstrations to teach, not just entertain," The Physics Teacher 51: 570-571; online to subscribers at <http://bit.ly/1xFHyxJ>.
**Miller, K., N. Lasry, K. Chu, & E. Mazur. 2013. "Role of lecture demonstrations in conceptual learning," Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research 9.020113; online at <http://bit.ly/1sOgW8w>.
Milner-Bolotin, M., A. Kotlicki, & G. Rieger. 2007. "Can Students Learn from Lecture Demonstrations? The Role and Place of Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Science Courses," l Journal of College Science Teaching, Jan/Feb, an abstract is online at http://http:// bit.ly/14w3hOj>.
Podolefsky, N. 2011. "Re: Rumor (MIT drops demos)," PhysLrnR post of 29 Jul 2011 19:49:57-0600, online on the CLOSED! PhysLrnR archives at <http:// bit.ly/1H5jo4d>.
Radford, D.L., L.L. Ramsey, & W.C. Deese. 1995. "Demonstration Assessment: Measuring conceptual unnderstanding and critical thinking with rubrics," The Science Teacher 62: 52-55; an ERIC abstract is online at <http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ512702>.
Roth, M.W., C.J. McRobbie, K.Bl Lucass, & S. Boutonne (1997). "Why may students fail to learn from demonstrations? A social practice perspective on learning in physics," Journal of Research in Science Teaching 34(5): 509-513; an ERIC abstract is online at <http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ545194>.
**Sharma, M.D., I.D. Johnston, H. Johnston, K. Varvell, G. Robertson, A. Hopkins, C. Stewart, I. Cooper, and R. Thornton. 2010. "Use of interactive lecture demonstrations: A ten year study," Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research 6. 020119: online at <http://bit.ly/1sOnELF>.
Shepardson D.P., E.B. Moje, A.M. Kennard-McClelland. 1994. "The impact of science demonstration on children's understanding of air pressure," J. Res. Sci. Teach 31(3): 243–258; an abstract is online at<http://bit.ly/11bTb2T>.
**Sokoloff, D.R. & Thornton, R.K. 1997. "Using interactive lecture demonstrations to create an active learning environment," The Physics Teacher 35(6): 340-347; online as a 745 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/1veeWMD>.
**Sokoloff, D.R. & R.K. Thornton 2004. "Interactive lecture demonstrations." John Wiley & Sons, publisher's information at http://bit.ly/1xYKeVo>. Amazon.com information at <http://amzn.to/PoI4MK>, note the searchable "Look Inside" feature.
Straits, W.J. & R.R. Wilke. 2006. "Interactive demonstrations: Examples from biology lectures," Journal of College Science Teaching 35 (4): 58-59. An ERIC abstract is online at <http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ752579>
**Thornton, R.K. 1993. "Learning Physics Concepts in the Introductory Course: Microcomputer-Based Labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations," pp. 69 – 86 in "Conference on the Introductory Physics Course. . ." [Wilson (1997)]. A pre-publication version is online as a 14.5 MB pdf at <http://bit.ly/1vas7yU>
Vondruska, J. 2014. "Re: articles on learning effects of demonstrations" online on the CLOSED! PhysLrnR archives at <http://bit.ly/1xphA31>. Post of 13 Nov 2014 16:25:55+0000 to PhysLrnR.
Wilson, J. ed. 1997. "Conference on the Introductory Physics Course on the occasion of the retirement of Robert Resnick." Amazon.com information at <http:// bit.ly/9DtXNR>.
**Yoder, G. & J. Cook. 2010. "Innovative interactive lecture demonstrations using wireless force sensors and accelerometers for introductory physics courses," The Physics Teacher 48: 567-571; online to subscribers at <http://bit.ly/1umfH58>.