A Brief History of all of History in broad detail.
1E-43 Seconds Planck Era
????? compactfication?? Gravity emerges as classical (or there is
no Gravity as this energy scale per the Induced Gravity Model)
1E-36 seconds GUT transition Strong force separates from EW force.
1E-36 Inflation begins. Slow rolling scalar field generates negative
pressure causing exponential expansion of space time. Doubling time 1E-36
Seconds. Vacuum energy density 1E73 tons/cm^3 Quantum fluctuations lock is
nearly scale invariant 1E-5 variation in energy density.
1E-34 seconds Inflation ends Decay of scalar Inflaton field causing re
heating. ( Is this the let there be light moment?? No, photons don't exist
yet, but other massless vector quanta like left and right weak and B-L
particle may exist. Things are not well known about this era.)
1E-34 to 1E -8 seconds Quark era. Quark gluon plasma. Quarks and super
particles dominant matter content.
1E-17 to 1E-15 seconds SUSY breaking. Super partners acquire mass with
the LSP expected to have a mass of about 10 Tev. (In induced Gravity model,
this is where mass energy first generates the induced gravity field,
Gravity is born.)
1E-10 seconds Electroweak Transition The Electroweak force under the
action of the Higgs mechanism break symmetry. The photon is born Standard
model particles get mass.
1E-5 seconds Quark confinement. The QCD vacuum becomes superconducting
to color magnetic current, Quarks and Gluons are confined.
1E -5 to 1 E-4 Hadron era Hadrons are formed, protons, neutrons pions
1E -4 Hadron annihilation. A brief period of proton-anti proton and
neutron anti neutron annihilation. A slight favoring of matter over anti
matter, possibly locked in by CP violation at Reheating caused some protons and
neutrons to survive.
1E-4 to 10 seconds Lepton era Following Hadron annihilation Leptons
dominant energy density.
1 sec Neutrino de coupling Mass energy falls low enough to free
neutrinos creating the neutrino cosmic background.
10 Seconds Electron annihilation Electrons and positrons annihilate
leaving a tiny fraction of electrons remaining. At this point the total number
of electrons equals the total number of protons.
10 seconds to 57 Kyr Radiation era Photons created from the
annihilation of matter and anti matter dominate the energy density of Universe
1- 5 minutes Nucleosynthesis Fusion of protons create helium, deuterium
and trace amounts of Lithium.
57 Kyr Matter Radiation equality The radiation density (photon and
neutrino) and matter density (dark and atomic) are equal. This is because
radiation density falls more quickly due to the stretching of the relativistic
particles wavelengths. Dark matter clumps into structures, atomic matter
begins oscillation due to the battle between gravity and photon pressure
generating acoustic oscillations. The first sounds of the new Universe
380 Kyr Recombination The temperature falls low enough to allow atoms
to form, photons decouple the CMB is born locking in its structure the
story of the earliest times in the Universe.
5 to 200 Mry The Dark age Photons fall into the infra red energy range,
the Universe goes dark. The atomic gas continues to fall toward the dark
matter clumps which grow more pronounced. Near 100 Myr the densest clumps halt
their expansion and begin collapsing. By 200 Myr the first mini halos form
and within these the atomic cloud cools and collapses to make the very
first stars whose light brings to an end the dark era.
200 Myr First Stars The first stars are very massive and short lived. They
die in violent Super Nova explosions filling the cosmos with the building
blocks of planets and the elements needed for life.
200 to 800 Myr Epoch of ionization The radiation from the stars and
possibly the first quasars, ionizes much of the remaining neutral hydrogen and
helium. A thin mist returns and partly obscures the CMB. ( Future Low
Frequency Radio Telescopes may soon be able to see the epoch of ionization)
1 to 2 Byr Infant Galaxies Star groups merge forming the very first
Galaxies. There are frequent collisions of galaxies, high star birth rates and
high supernova rates. Heavy element production changes the pattern of star
formation, making them lower mass, less luminous and longer lived, like those
of today. The stage is set for the emergence of life, the Cosmos will soon
have eyes to see and minds to think.
2 to 3 Byr Star Birth and quasar peak. In the dense environment of frequent
galaxy collisions the star birth rate reached it maximum, as does the
forming and feeding of supermassive black holes.
6 Byr First Rich Galaxy Clusters Enough time has elapsed for the densest
regions to stop expanding and firm clusters.
7 Byr Decelerstion/accelerstion The effects of Dark energy kick in. The
Universe once again begins to accelerate its expansion rate, but at a much
more gentle rate.
8 Byr First Modern Spiral Galaxies Although some elliptical galaxies form
in the first Byr , classic spiral galaxies aren't seen until about 5Byr
9 Byr Matter / Dark Energy Equality At this time the falling density of
matter (dark and atomic) become equal to that of dark energy.
9.1 Byr Sun and Earth form The solar system forms in the outer disk of the
milky way. The stage is set for the emergence of Humankind in the COSMOS.
13.7 Byr present time. Human civilization reaches peak and begins heading
into decline and eventual extinction due to over population, resource
depletion, environmental destruction which generates conflict as Human nation
states fight for ever dwindling resources Hopefully Humankind is not typical
and intelligent life elsewhere solves the problem of balancing intelligent
life needs with available resources by developing communitarian cooperative
economic social structures.
16 to 17 Byr The Milky way collides with the Andromeda galaxy. Somewhere
within this time the Sun enters into its Red Giant phase, possibly
vaporizing the earth. Humankind extinct for over 4 Byr is not around to witness
this event though possibly a new intelligent species which emerged after the
extinction of Humankind might be. It will be a very sad time for them unless
their technology includes very advanced space flight.
20 Byr Growth of Structures cease. Expansion due to Dark energy empties
each casual patch of the COSMOS. The story our Universe draws to a close.
100 Bly What remains of the Milky way is alone in its causal patch of the
1000 Byr Last stars die. The Universse is empty and dark. However,
stirring in the vacuum of space time itself are the ever present vacuum
fluctuations. One small patch quite by chance fluctuates sufficiently to create a
volume of false vacuum which cut off from its mother Universe by negative
pressure explodes into a new Universe creating new space time and future hope
the emergence of intelligent life in the COSMOS.