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[Phys-L] solar constant

The solar constant is around 1370 W/m2. I believe this is the average
value over the entire Earth in one year. I have two questions.

1. How can I find the approximate value on a given day at a given location
(latitude)? Is there some formula or way to estimate? I realize this might
not be easy.

which leads to:

2. Is there a "simple" experiment kids can do to measure the solar
constant (solar cell, heating water, etc.)?

This has some good concepts for energy, heat, and optics in both physics
and astronomy.