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Talking about inference, here is a story I have read somewhere
which some of you may be knowing already.
There is a society of logicians. Anybody who wants join the society
will be given a test and only those who pass the test
Once three new candidates applied for membership. The society
devised a test for them. They were told that they will be bindfolded
and three caps will be placed one each on their heads. The caps will
be either black or white. Then their blindfolds will be removed.
The candidate cannot see the color of the cap on his own head but
only of those on the heads of the other two. A candidates who sees
one or more white caps should rise his hand. From the hands raised
one has to guess the color of the cap on his own head.
The candidates were blindfolded and three white caps were placed on
their heads. The blindfolds were removed. All the three raised hands.
Presently one of them said that his cap is white. How did he guess that?